Meryem--wheels appear to spin backwards when photographed if they
are spinning at less than 24 times a second (or a multiple of that).
They would have to spin at exactly 24 times a second to appear to
be stationary and faster to appear to go forward.  As for "persistence
of vision," it is rather embarrassing to admit as a co-editor of a
journal of that name, that that theory ofperception has been disproved as
an adequate explanation of why we see film as moving, as has the psi
phenomenon.   (We knew that when we named the journal, but have you
ever tried to name a film journal?)  If this is unclear, try me privately
for an explanation when it is not 1 a.m.  liz weis cuny
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