Some basic theory concerning the nature of messages might help the debate
about the objectivity and subjectivity of journalism.  Roman Jakobson's
twin models of the factors and functions of communication (routine first
and second year teaching in media studies courses in the UK) is helpful
in demonstrating the range of possibilities.  The models appear in many
text books, and I think their original source is Jacobson, R. and Halle
M. THE FUNDAMENTALS OF LANGUAGE (The Hague: Mouton, 1956).  A simple
introduction to them is found in John Fiske, INTRODUCTION TO
COMMUNICATION STUDIES (London and New York: Methuen) pp36-9.